• Research Article

    Standard Model and Simple Evaluation Coefficient by Type of Non Residential Public Building for Green Remodeling Energy Performance Analysis

    그린리모델링 에너지 성능 분석을 위한 비주거 공공건축물 유형별 표준모델 및 간단 평가계수 도출

    Lee, Jong-Geon, Jang, Hyang-In

    이종건, 장향인

    The government of Korea has been promoting the Green Remodeling for public buildings as a part of the Korean Green New Deal … + READ MORE
    The government of Korea has been promoting the Green Remodeling for public buildings as a part of the Korean Green New Deal since July 2020. However, standard models and preliminary data for analyzing the effects before and after the improvement according to Green Remodeling technology elements are inadequate. Therefore, simple evaluation coefficients of the primary energy requirements for grade by each design coefficient (total ground area, bearing, year of completion, area, etc.) before improvement and design alternatives (envelope, cooling and heating equipment, hot-water supply, lighting, photovoltaics, etc.) after improvement targeting 15 usage non-residential public building standard models were deduced and a database was established in this study. To verify the validity of such evaluation coefficients, the coefficients were compared with the ECO2 simulation result. Consequently, the average error rate of 405 cases selected according to the experiments design ranged between 1.91%~10.86%, and the average error rate of five actual building cases was 5.28% before improvement and 4.64% after improvement. Therefore, it is considered that it is possible to predict the energy performance before and after Green Remodeling in the advanced planning stage promptly using the standard models and evaluation coefficients presented in this study. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Development of Control Algorithm for Cooling Tower Low-Approach Temperature

    냉각탑의 어프로치 온도 감소를 위한 제어알고리즘 개발

    Ha, Ju-Wan, Kim, Yu-Jin, Kim, Hwan-Yong, Song, Young-Hak

    하주완, 김유진, 김환용, 송영학

    The chiller efficiency is an important factor for improving the efficiency of the central chilled water system. A low-condenser water temperature is … + READ MORE
    The chiller efficiency is an important factor for improving the efficiency of the central chilled water system. A low-condenser water temperature is required for the low cooling tower leaving water temperature, which affects the chiller efficiency. Various studies have been conducted to produce low-condenser water temperature, but an additional review is needed on a method to lower the approach temperature. This study developed a control algorithm for cooling tower low-approach temperature. The approach temperature changes within the same load, ambient conditions according to the liquid-to-gas ratio (LGR), which is the operating condition of the cooling tower system. It found that the lower the LGR, the lower the approach temperature could be secured. As the approach temperature is lowered, it is expected that the efficiency of the chiller and cooling water pump will be improved. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    A Study on PM10 Reduction Reflecting Actual Measurement in Elementary School Sports Facility

    초등학교 체육시설내 실측을 반영한 미세먼지 저감방안 연구

    Cha, Dae-O, Hwang, Jung-Ha

    차대오, 황정하

    This study targeted school sports facilities with general area and ventilation system and measured the changes in PM10 concentration according to students’ … + READ MORE
    This study targeted school sports facilities with general area and ventilation system and measured the changes in PM10 concentration according to students’ activities, analyzed the amount of fine dust generated, and simulated the efficiency of fine dust reduction according to the ventilation method. According to the study, the PM10 reduction efficiency compared to without ventilation[C-1] was 34% in operating EHP[C-2] when PM10 alarm is good, 24% in [C-2] when PM10 alarm is normal, 16% in [C-2] when PM10 alarm is bad, 26% in opening window[C-3] when PM10 alarm is good, and 0% in [C-3] when PM10 alarm is normal, bad. In case of installed HEPA filter in EHP[C-4] reduction efficiency was 34% when PM10 alarm is good, 28% when PM10 alarm is normal, 22% when PM10 alarm is bad. In sided ventilation[C-5], the PM10 reduction efficiency was 53% when PM10 alarm is good, 48% when PM10 alarm is normal, and 41% when PM10 alarm is bad. As a result, Sided ventilation[C-5] installed close to generate factor was the most suitable ventilation system. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    An Analysis of Energy Performance Improvement Effect through Green Remodeling of Small Neighborhood Facilities

    소규모 근린생활시설의 그린리모델링을 통한 에너지성능 개선 효과 분석

    Lee, Do-Hyung, Byun, Soo-Young, Won, Jong-Yeon, Choi, Dong-Ho

    이도형, 변수영, 원종연, 최동호

    This study analyzed the effects of green remodeling in the consideration of zero-energy building certification on small neighborhood facilities that were completed … + READ MORE
    This study analyzed the effects of green remodeling in the consideration of zero-energy building certification on small neighborhood facilities that were completed over 30 years ago. The result of the first energy demand analysis showed 56.8% reduction from 207.0 kWh/㎡·yr before green remodeling to 89.5 kWh/㎡·yr after green remodeling. It was also determined that carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 56.7%. For green remodeling of economic zero-energy buildings, the dependence on new and renewable energy should be reduced by minimizing primary energy consumption. This can minimize the burden of energy production if energy consumption decreases. In order to avoid planning to install a PV system indiscriminately, the adequacy review must be preceded by a sunshine simulation analysis. In the future, it is expected that research will be conducted to analyze the effectiveness of technology elements for energy improvement in buildings in the future and the findings will be used to inform building owners implementing green remodeling. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Accelerated Test Method for the Aged Thermal Conductivity of Fumed Silica Vacuum Insulation Panel

    흄드실리카 진공단열재의 경시변화된 열전도도 측정을 위한 가속시험법 연구

    Bae, Min-Jung, Kwon, Jae-Sung, Choi, Gyeong-Seok, Kim, Young-Tag, Kang, Jae-Sik

    배민정, 권재성, 최경석, 김영탁, 강재식

    Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) are having difficulty entering the Korean market because there is no Korean standard (KS). The draft international standard … + READ MORE
    Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) are having difficulty entering the Korean market because there is no Korean standard (KS). The draft international standard (ISO/DIS) 16478 has being developed, and this version is expected to make the final draft international standard (FDIS) until this year and then establish as the International standard. Since the standard is going to be converted to the KS standard, it is absolutely necessary to technologically review for reasonable conformity with the developed standard. It is inappropriate the test method according to ISO/DIS 16478 that takes at least 6 months (180 days) for one product of vacuum insulation panel using fumed silica considering the characteristics of the Korean market. The gas and moisture permeability affects on the thermal conductivity of the aged vacuum insulation panel. The adjusted accelerated condition can establish as a test method that requires about 30 days comparing to 180 days suggested in the ISO/DIS 16478. Through future research, we plan to conduct a technical review of two test methods and results, performed for 30 days under high acceleration conditions (80℃, 70% RH) and 180 days under accelerated conditions (50℃, 70% RH). - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Laws and Rating Systems on Residential Ventilators with Suggestion of the Direction to Improve the Energy Efficiency - Focusing on Fan Energy Saving of Heat Recovery Ventilators in Apartment Houses

    주거용 건축물의 환기시스템 관련 제도 분석 및 개선 방향 제안 – 기계 환기시스템의 팬 에너지 절감을 중심으로

    Yun, Yo-Sun, Cho, Kyung-Joo

    윤요선, 조경주

    Currently, laws and rating systems related to residential ventilation systems focus on improving indoor air quality and responding to fine dust problems … + READ MORE
    Currently, laws and rating systems related to residential ventilation systems focus on improving indoor air quality and responding to fine dust problems rather than energy saving technologies. In terms of energy savings, the ventilation system of an apartment house has a large ripple effect because a system developed for an apartment house can be applied to several households at the same time. The purpose of this study is to analyze the laws, rules, rating systems, and existing literatures related to residential ventilators, and to derive a system improvement plan for reducing ventilation energy of residential buildings. Through the analysis of domestic policies, laws and rating systems related to residential ventilation systems, the performance standards were analyzed with energy-related provisions of mechanical ventilation systems applied in residential buildings. The basic performance of mechanical ventilation systems of residential buildings should comply with the Rules on facility Standards of Buildings. However, energy savings need not to be considered mandatory. For this reason, firstly through the analysis of existing research, room-by-room control and bypass control were derived as ventilation energy reduction technologies. and filed experiments were conducted to verify the technology. As a result of the field test, when the bypass mode was applied, it was reduced by 42~55% compared to the heat recovery ventilation mode. When room-by-room control is applied, fan power can be reduced by 8 to 49% compared to all-room control. In this study, based on the research results, improvement proposals for ventilation-related laws, rules and rating systems were proposed. It is to reflect the contents of room-by-room control and bypass control in the residential ventilation system. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    A Proposal of Performance Evaluation Method for Composite Insulation with Low-emissivity Thin Film and Polyethylene Foam

    저방사 박막과 폴리에틸렌 폼이 결합된 복합 단열재의 성능 평가방법 제안

    Seo, Jun-Sik, Hong, Seung-Hun, Shin, Jae-Yoon, Kim, Dae-Su

    서준식, 홍승훈, 신재윤, 김대수

    In this paper, Standards and test methods related to low-emissivity thin film composite insulation has been analyzed. Performance indicators were established to … + READ MORE
    In this paper, Standards and test methods related to low-emissivity thin film composite insulation has been analyzed. Performance indicators were established to secure product performance of Korean low-emissivity thin film composite insulation, and adequacy was verified through experiments. To evaluate the performance of low-emissivity thin film composite insulation, 6 essential performance evaluation indicators were established and proposed. In addition, a methodology for evaluating the performance of each indicator was presented and experimented. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Improvement of Surface Roughness Classification Criteria Reflecting the Height and Density of Building by Region

    지역별 건축물 높이 및 밀집도를 반영한 지표면 조도 구분 기준의 개선

    Lee, Min-Hyung, Seo, Woo-Seok, Park, Chang-Young, Choi, Chang-Ho

    이민형, 서우석, 박창영, 최창호

    In this study, quantitative standards of surface roughness using building statistics were proposed to secure objectivity in the selection of surface roughness. … + READ MORE
    In this study, quantitative standards of surface roughness using building statistics were proposed to secure objectivity in the selection of surface roughness. By using building register, parameters related to the classification criteria for surface roughness were calculated. Based on this, the surface roughness standards for each grade were quantified and the surface roughness grades for each region in Korea were classified. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, validation was conducted by comparing the vertical wind speed in the Changwon and Wonju. The wind speed measured by the wind profiler was compared with the wind speed calculated with proposed method. The average wind speed error for each altitude in the Changwon was derived as 0.24 m/s and the relative error was estimated at 5.0%. The average wind speed error for each altitude in the Wonju area was 0.32 m/s, and the relative error was estimated as 11.3%. Both regions recorded a significantly lower error than when different surface roughness grades were applied. Therefore, the proposed method accurately distinguished the surface roughness. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Energy Efficiency Analysis of Different Types of Fuel Cells based Characteristic Heat and Electric Consumption

    공동주택 열, 전기 소비특성 차이에 따른 연료전지 종류별 에너지 효율화 차이 비교

    Yoo, Jung-Hyun, Bang, Sun-Kyu, Kim, Ga-Yeon, Yoon, In-Whan

    유정현, 방선규, 김가연, 윤인환

    This study analyzed the applicability of fuel cells as new energy sources in the residential sector based on the theoretical equation. Specifically, … + READ MORE
    This study analyzed the applicability of fuel cells as new energy sources in the residential sector based on the theoretical equation. Specifically, considering that fuel cells are a type of cogeneration system, the energy saving effects of fuel cells were compared to existing individual heating system. The conclusions obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) The most distributed PEMFC for buildings was found to have maximum efficiency at around heat ratio 1.0 and SOFC and PAFC was have maximum energy efficiency between heat ratio 0.1 and 0.5. The primary energy savings of PEMFC 20%, SOFC 30%, and PAFC 23% could be expected if 50% of the power load was fuel cell system. (2) Consumption of electricity and hot water was found to have a large impact on the difference in the number of households, and in the case of heating, it was analyzed that the difference between household members was not significant. It was found that a detailed analysis of household characteristics or types of energy consumption should be reflected in determining fuel cells types. (3) It was analyzed that the application effect of PEMFC in unit A with high thermal potential. But SOFC or PAFC in unit B with a higher power load ratio compared to thermal load would be high. In particular, according to the characteristics of fuel cells, PEMFC with high heat recovery were found to have high energy efficiency in mid-season, winter, and SOFC with high power generation efficiency in summer. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Electricity Consumption Pattern Analysis of Nationwide Apartment using Clustering Method based on Open Data

    공공데이터 기반 전국 아파트단지의 전기 소비 클러스터링 패턴분석

    Kim, Se-Heon, Lee, Jong-Won

    김세헌, 이종원

    The purpose of this article is to present actual case-based pattern analysis of electricity consumption in nationwide apartment residence through K-means clustering … + READ MORE
    The purpose of this article is to present actual case-based pattern analysis of electricity consumption in nationwide apartment residence through K-means clustering algorithm, by utilizing open data for electricity consumption. Furthermore, this paper investigates electricity consumption related factors with the cluster separation. Electricity consumption data is collected through K-APT OpenAPI (Open Application Programming Interface) service and Address searching API from Ministry of Public Administration and Security is used as well, to link text address data with apartment data. After that, this paper conducted normalization of collected data and selection of appropriate number of clusters, to cluster electricity consumption pattern of nationwide apartment complexes. Based on the clustering result, this paper classified eight total consumption patter cluster into three categories: August focused, September focused, and equally distributed. This paper contributes to setting a basis for detailed analysis by suggesting three major consumption patterns based on actual nationwide apartment electricity consumption data. Further study should be performed to find determining factors for each consumption pattern, and to analyze detailed analysis based on patterns. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    A Study on the Analysis of Energy Savings according to the Increase in Airtight Performance using a School Classroom Window Design Tool

    학교 교실 창호 설계 도구를 활용한 기밀 성능 증가에 따른 에너지 절감량 분석에 관한 연구

    Kim, Seok-Hyun, Lee, Sung-Jin, Cho, Soo

    김석현, 이성진, 조수

    Recently, various problems caused by fine dust have occurred in South Korea, and among them, the influence of fine dust to improve … + READ MORE
    Recently, various problems caused by fine dust have occurred in South Korea, and among them, the influence of fine dust to improve the indoor air quality of schools, especially for the health of students whose respiratory organs are weaker than adults. Various improvement measures are being utilized to reduce this. Air purification technology for reducing fine dust has been introduced in various ways, and the introduction of a highly airtight outer skin that can block the indoor and outdoor areas of school buildings is required. In this study, in order to reduce energy consumption and prevent the inflow of fine dust, we examined the airtight performance level required in school classrooms, and designed highly airtight windows to achieve the airtightness performance suitable for the required level. We would like to propose a design methodology for highly airtight window that can be utilized by designers so that In addition, we proposed a design tool configuration plan that can implement the design methodology, and examined the energy consumption according to the confidentiality performance using this. The actual window design tool utilizes the actual window test report and compares it with the air volume that can be compared with the time ventilation rate (Air Change per Hour) that expresses the airtightness of the building. By enabling consideration, designers will be able to utilize it for window selection and material selection according to the privacy level. In addition, as a result of deriving an energy examination procedure using a confidential window design tool and using this to analyze using drawings of Elementary School, the degree of energy saving according to the level of indoor windows and inquiries was obtained. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Proposal of Automation Method for Barrier Free Calculating Manoeuvring Space based on openBIM

    개방형 BIM기반 무장애 활동공간 산출 자동화 방안 제안

    Lee, Yong-Ha, Kim, Chang-Min, Park, Chang-Young, Jang, Hyang-In

    이용하, 김창민, 박창영, 장향인

    Among the factors that affect the accessibility of a building, whether to secure an manoeuvring space is an important factor in determining … + READ MORE
    Among the factors that affect the accessibility of a building, whether to secure an manoeuvring space is an important factor in determining whether a facility can be used by a wheelchair user. In addition, it is required to secure a manoeuvring space through laws and certification systems. The existing manoeuvring space review method is a manual 2D drawing review, and a work load is generated in this process. To solve this problem, research on BIM-based BF certification and automation of legal review has been conducted, but it is only at the level of supporting the existing review method. Therefore, this study intends to automate the calculation process of the manoeuvring space by using openBIM data. We extract the requested information from the BF certification items that require the review of the manoeuvring space, and propose a method for identifying the door, guestroom, bedroom, and the toilet for which the manoeuvring space is required. The manoeuvring space is calculated using the geometry information of the identified object. A pilot test of the proposed manoeuvring space calculation method was conducted, and the accuracy was verified by comparing the results with the manual method. Through the proposed manoeuvring space calculation method, it is possible to simplify the manoeuvring space calculation process required in the licensing and certification process, and it is expected that the work load can be minimized. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    The Effects of Ventilation Strategies on Indoor Humidity Control in Multi-Family Residential Buildings in South Korea

    공동주택 세대 습기 제어를 위한 환기 시스템 운영 전략 효과 연구

    Kwag, Byung-Chang, Kim, Tae-Min, Kim, Gil-Tae, Ji, Won-Gil, Park, Kyung-Yong

    곽병창, 김태민, 김길태, 지원길, 박경용

    It is essential to control humidity level to maintain indoor air quality of multi-family residential buildings preventing condensation and mold growth. Exhaust … + READ MORE
    It is essential to control humidity level to maintain indoor air quality of multi-family residential buildings preventing condensation and mold growth. Exhaust and ventilation systems can have indoor humidity control performance, but it can affect occupant’s comfort and energy consumption associated with ventilation devices. Therefore, it needs to optimize the strategies to operate exhaust or ventilation systems of typical Korean multi-family residential buildings. This study carried out experiments for various combinations of exhaust and ventilation systems to control indoor humidity level. As a result, it was effective to use the kitchen hood and the energy recovery ventilator simultaneously when detecting humidity level increase, then to use only the ERV after reaching the peak increment of indoor humidity level. The experiments showed that the modified control algorithm could provide controlling indoor humidity level effectively with lower noise generation and electricity consumption than using the kitchen hood and multiple ventilation systems. This paper shows the importance of considering various parameters comprehensively to optimize indoor air quality control strategy. The results of this study will be useful as a control strategy for indoor air quality when planning a control system with sensors to operate exhaust and ventilation systems effectively in multi-family residential buildings. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
Journal Informaiton Journal of Korean Institute of Architectural Sustainable Environment and Building Systems Journal of Korean Institute of Architectural Sustainable Environment and Building Systems
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