• Research Article

    Effects of Ventilation Rates Control and Isolation of Infected Persons on Risk of Airborne Infection in Elementary Schools

    환기량 및 감염자 분리시점이 초등학교 내 공기전파감염확률에 미치는 영향 분석

    Cheong, Chang-Heon

    정창헌

    In this study, ventilation methods and quarantine methods for infected persons were evaluated as measures to reduce airborne infections in elementary schools. … + READ MORE
    In this study, ventilation methods and quarantine methods for infected persons were evaluated as measures to reduce airborne infections in elementary schools. The minimum ventilation rate by mechanical equipment was calculated based on 20 people. As a result of the study, it was found that the minimum ventilation using mechanical ventilation has limitations in preventing the spread of airborne infection. However, it has been shown that securing a natural ventilation of more than 10 ACH throughout the day can effectively prevent the spread of airborne infection, but it is inevitably a limited alternative depending on the characteristics of the building. On the other hand, rapid isolation of infected persons has been shown to be very effective in preventing the spread of airborne infections. It is noteworthy that if an infected person can be isolated immediately after the first class, the spread of airborne infection can be effectively prevented even in everyday situations without wearing a mask. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    A Study of Road Traffic Noise Measurement and Evaluation Methods According to Road Characteristics of General National Roads

    일반국도의 도로특성에 따른 도로교통소음 측정 및 평가방법 고찰

    Kim, Sin-Tae, Lee, Hyung-Gyu, Yum, Sung-Gon, Kim, Ha-Geun, Kim, Myung-Jun

    김신태, 이형규, 염성곤, 김하근, 김명준

    In this study, general national roads with relatively low traffic volume were studied. Accordingly, road traffic noise was evaluated and analyzed according … + READ MORE
    In this study, general national roads with relatively low traffic volume were studied. Accordingly, road traffic noise was evaluated and analyzed according to the current evaluation method (Noise standards for the Apartment and Noise standards for Road). The relationship between the measured noise level and the equivalent noise level according to the change in measurement time was confirmed. For the selection of general national roads, five measurement point were selected according to traffic volume. As a result of measuring road traffic noise at 5 general national road measurement points, it was 62.9 to 66.4 dB(A) during the day and 56.4 to 59.0 dB(A) at night. As a result of analyzing the nighttime road traffic noise based on the current evaluation method, the more the traffic volume, the smaller the deviation of the analysis results, and the smaller the traffic volume, the larger the deviation of the analysis results. As a result of analyzing the road traffic noise by analysis time by classifying it into day and night, it was confirmed that the frequency of occurrence of outliers decreased with the increase of time, and it was the least in the result of analysis at 60 minutes. This means that in the case of general national roads with low traffic volume, compared to highways, the selection of the measurement time zone has a greater impact on the evaluated noise level, and the difference with the equivalent noise level may appear large. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Global Sensitivity Analysis for ASHRAE Borehole Heat Exchanger Sizing Method

    ASHRAE 지열교환기 설계법에 대한 전역 민감도 분석

    Shin, Euntak, Kim, Yoonseong, Choi, Wonjun

    신은탁, 김윤성, 최원준

    Ground heat exchanger (GHE) is a critical component of ground-source heat pump systems. One of the most common GHE types is borehole … + READ MORE
    Ground heat exchanger (GHE) is a critical component of ground-source heat pump systems. One of the most common GHE types is borehole heat exchanger (BHE). The determination of the required BHE length is influenced by many uncertain parameters, including the ground thermal load, ground thermal properties, and BHE geometry. The ground thermal load is influenced by the building loads and heat pump efficiency, which can vary widely. Spatially averaged ground thermal properties inherently involve uncertainty. Furthermore, the construction process for BHEs cannot be entirely controlled. The propagation of parameter uncertainties throughout the sizing process results in a significant level of uncertainty in estimating BHE length. Therefore, this study aims to quantify the contribution of each input parameter to BHE sizing, elucidating their impacts on BHE sizing uncertainty. The results exhibited that the 1-hour peak ground load and 720-hour-long peak ground load are the most influential factors contributing to BHE sizing uncertainty. Consequently, the results suggest that prioritizing uncertainty management of parameters related to ground load is essential to enhance the reliability of BHE design. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Indoor Air Quality and Building Energy Evaluation based on Core Layer Materials Applied in CLT

    CLT의 코어층 적용 재료에 따른 실내공기질 및 건물에너지 평가

    Park, Hae-Deun, Yeo, Su-Hwan, Park, Jin-Young, Jeong, Hyeon-Woo, Chang, Seong-Jin

    박해든, 여수환, 박진영, 정현우, 장성진

    This study conducted an evaluation of indoor air quality and building energy efficiency in CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber) construction based on the core … + READ MORE
    This study conducted an evaluation of indoor air quality and building energy efficiency in CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber) construction based on the core layer materials used. The results revealed that indoor air quality measurements were lower than the recommended standards for multi-purpose facilities, maintenance criteria, and new residential buildings. Additionally, using DesignBuilder software, thermal performance and building energy consumption were assessed, with PB (Particleboard) demonstrating the lowest energy usage among LW (Larch Wood), PB (Particle Board), and PW (Plywood). Utilizing the building as a dormitory with a PB structure in Central Region 1 would result in the most efficient energy usage, with a consumption rate of 96.9 kWh/m2. Furthermore, a building energy assessment was conducted for PB with insulation applied, resulting in energy savings ranging from 9.75 to 17.5 kWh/m2. The dormitory building in Central Region 1 exhibited the most fficient energy utilization at 84.36 kWh/m2. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Impact of Airtightness on Energy Performance in Public Rental Housing

    건물 기밀성능의 에너지성능에 대한 기밀성능 영향도 평가

    Choi, Su-Ji, Jo, Jae-Hun, Park, Si-Hyun

    최수지, 조재훈, 박시현

    Increased regulation of the energy performance of buildings is driving the need to improve the energy performance of existing buildings. Airtightness is … + READ MORE
    Increased regulation of the energy performance of buildings is driving the need to improve the energy performance of existing buildings. Airtightness is analyzed as an effective factor for improving energy performance, but it is not widely applied due to the lack of standards and related regulations. To evaluate the impact of airtightness on improving energy performance, this study analyzed the energy demand and primary energy consumption caused by the difference between the required airtightness value and the measured airtightness value. Airtightness performance was measured in small, aging public rental housing units that are prioritized for policy support. The impact of airtightness was conducted through energy performance evaluation and analyzed in two parts: the energy saving rate of airtightness among energy performance improvement factors and the energy saving rate that can be improved by enhanced airtightness standards. The results showed that improving airtightness is effective in reducing energy consumption in older buildings, especially when the enhanced airtightness standard is applied to improve the energy performance of old buildings, the energy saving rate is nearly double compared to the current efficiency. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Characteristics of Cooking Energy for Decarbonization in Apartment Complexes - Focus on Central Region of Korea -

    공동주택의 취사에너지의 탈탄소화를 위한 특성 분석 - 중부지방을 대상으로 -

    Kim, Yu-Min, Shin, Hye-Ry

    김유민, 신혜리

    The most proportion of fossil fuel which is consumed in building sector is city gas used in the household sector, which is … + READ MORE
    The most proportion of fossil fuel which is consumed in building sector is city gas used in the household sector, which is mostly used for heating, hot water supply, and cooking that require direct heat supply. As the energy performance of buildings improves, heating and hot water energy usage is decreasing, while research on the status and characteristics of cooking energy is not enough. Accordingly, this study analyzed cooking energy use in the household sector to provide data for future reduction of cooking energy and conversion to electricity and renewable energy by analyzing energy consumption data from 1,000 households. 22.6% of households are believed to have used electric cooking appliances, and this increase is expected to continue in the future. In addition, it was analyzed that each household uses about 70 kWh of cooking energy per month, which was about 9.5% less in the summer compared to the winter. This study analyzed factors affecting cooking energy and provided basic data that can be used in the future to decarbonize energy used for cooking. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Basic Research on Machine Learning Algorithm for Predicting CO2 Concentration in an Apartment based on Resident Behavior

    거주자 행태 기반 공동주택 CO2 농도 예측 기계학습 알고리즘 기초 연구

    Hong, Su-Min, Cho, Kyung-Joo, Kang, Tae-Wook

    홍수민, 조경주, 강태욱

    This paper focuses on developing and validating a CO2 concentration prediction model to optimally control and operate mechanical ventilation systems in … + READ MORE
    This paper focuses on developing and validating a CO2 concentration prediction model to optimally control and operate mechanical ventilation systems in residential buildings. Various datasets and models were utilized throughout the research process. Initially, CO2 concentration was predicted based on a basic dataset comprising the day of the week, time, temperature, and indoor CO2 levels. Subsequently, a more comprehensive dataset, incorporating ventilation system operation counts and natural ventilation presence, was employed for predictions. Machine learning and deep learning models such as ANN, DNN, LSTM, KNN, and LGBM were trained using these datasets, and their predictive performance was compared across different areas of the residence, namely bedrooms, living rooms, and corridors. The findings demonstrate that even using the basic dataset alone, it is possible to predict CO2 levels in residential buildings with a high degree of confidence. These results are expected to contribute to the development of future algorithms for operating next-generation mechanical ventilation systems that aim to minimize energy consumption while maintaining a clean indoor environment. This paper is anticipated to increase interest and understanding in environmentally conscious indoor environmental control systems and offer essential research insights for the advancement of building systems and environmental technology in the future. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Performance Evaluation of Sound Insulation and Airtightness in Relation to Construction Methods for Noise Reduction Factors

    배관 및 벽체 매입요소의 시공법에 따른 차음성능 및 기밀성능 평가

    Kim, Min-Ju, Park, Jong-Il, Lee, Jeong-Hun, Jeong, Su-Gwang

    김민주, 박종일, 이정훈, 정수광

    This study focuses on noise challenges in apartments, specifically inter-household noise. It examines five noise reduction factors, with a focus on airtightness … + READ MORE
    This study focuses on noise challenges in apartments, specifically inter-household noise. It examines five noise reduction factors, with a focus on airtightness and sound insulation. Findings show significant variations in sound insulation at low frequencies, depending on construction methods. Common trends emerge at 25 Hz and 63 Hz across all factors. Elements like tin pipe, insulated pipe, and panel board enhance noise insulation through airtight construction, while switches 2 and 4 exhibit decreased performance. The study establishes a strong correlation between sound insulation and air tightness, particularly in the mid-frequency range (315 Hz to 2,000 Hz), suggesting potential use of mid-frequency data for effective air tightness analysis. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    An Analysis of Optimal Data Resolution on Change Point Model for Public Open Data Based Building Energy Consumption Diagnosis

    공공데이터 기반의 건물 에너지 진단을 위한 Change Point Model의 최적 데이터 해상도 분석

    Kim, Seheon, Kim, Beom-Jun, Lim, Hansol, Yu, Ki-Hyung, Jeong, Jae-Weon

    김세헌, 김범준, 임한솔, 유기형, 정재원

    This paper aims to analyze optimal resolution for energy consumption data to improve data-driven building energy consumption diagnosis with the ASHRAE change … + READ MORE
    This paper aims to analyze optimal resolution for energy consumption data to improve data-driven building energy consumption diagnosis with the ASHRAE change point model. A 9-floor office building is selected as a target, and hourly data is measured throughout a year. Heating, cooling, and other types of energy consumption are measured separately, to find truth values of the heating change point and cooling change point, which refers to the temperature at which the building starts heating or cooling. After the truth change point is found, the total sum of the consumption is resampled along different time intervals, to reflect various levels of data resolution. Change point models are built with each differently resampled data, and their results including change point and RMSE were compared to find the optimal time interval of the data. The result showed 2-week interval is the optimal interval. However, an unordinary pattern, which may be due to individual heating or cooling appliances being counted as appliance consumption rather than cooling or heating consumption, is observed as well. The results of this study suggest that the resolution of public data needs to be improved for the energy consumption diagnosis based on public data, and the usage of individual heating and cooling devices needs to be considered additionally in the diagnosis process. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Research on Improvement Measures based on Experimental Results of Airtightness Performance of Modular Negative Pressure Wards

    모듈러 음압병동 기밀성능 실험 결과에 따른 개선방안에 대한 연구

    Chung, Joon-Soo, Lim, Seok-Ho, Seol, Wook-Je, Yang, Hyeon-Jeong, Lee, Keon-Ho

    정준수, 임석호, 설욱제, 양현정, 이건호

    Negative pressure wards are dangerous because they do not have high airtightness, which can lead to the spread of contaminated air if … + READ MORE
    Negative pressure wards are dangerous because they do not have high airtightness, which can lead to the spread of contaminated air if negative pressure control fails. Therefore, this modular negative pressure ward applies the dry construction method applied to the internal cabin joints of ships where wall gaps can be sealed to prevent air movement or leakage through walls, floors, and ceilings to meet the facility standards of negative pressure isolation areas. The airtightness performance evaluation of this method was conducted and the results were compared with the existing experimental values to seek improvement measures. Currently, the design standards for negative pressure wards comprehensively mention airtightness in the architectural planning section, but do not provide clear performance standards. It is believed that this could be proposed through social consensus in the future when additional experimental results of more diverse negative pressure wards are collected. In particular, the results of this study were conducted only in the infill condition of the negative pressure ward, and it is judged that if PC modular is applied in the future or additional finishing treatments are performed on the front and back during construction in the ward, the settlement caused by the left and right sides and the top and bottom of the modular negative pressure ward can be further improved. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Energy Saving Potential of Simultaneous Heating and Cooling Heat Pump-Based District Heating and Cooling Systems for a Zero-Energy Community

    제로에너지 커뮤니티 구현을 위한 동시냉난방 히트펌프기반 지역냉난방 시스템의 에너지 저감 효과 분석

    Choi, Won-Jong, Park, Kyung-Eun, Kang, So-Hyung, Hong, Joo-Young, Kim, Min-Hwi

    최원종, 박경은, 강소형, 홍주영, 김민휘

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy technologies is getting important to achieve carbon neutrality in 2050. This research investigated … + READ MORE
    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy technologies is getting important to achieve carbon neutrality in 2050. This research investigated the energy saving potential of simultaneous heating and cooling heat pump based next generation district heating and cooling systems for a zero energy community. For this purpose, four university campus buildings in Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do was selected as a case study. In this paper, the campus thermal load and electric energy consumption was modeled by DesignBuilder software, and Design-Expert software was used to calculate the COP of heat pump. As a result, it was found that the proposed heat pump integrated with district heating and cooling system can reduce 23.0% of electricity consumption compared with a conventional air source heat pump system and 9.5% of that compared with ground source heat pump system, respectively. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Interior Environmental Changes and Compositional Effects of Wooden Storage Cabinets and Sculptures

    수납장과 목조각의 실내 환경 변화 및 조성 효과 분석

    Kim, Sa-Ick

    김사익

    Interior decoration is a deliberate craft that ideally harmonizes the human environment, making spaces both technologically and artistically comfortable by fulfilling their … + READ MORE
    Interior decoration is a deliberate craft that ideally harmonizes the human environment, making spaces both technologically and artistically comfortable by fulfilling their essential purposes. The primary goals revolve around efficiently creating space to foster a pleasant environment, focusing on comfort and functionality. The inclusion of wooden sculptures brings a distinctive essence and ambiance to indoor spaces. Beyond their artistic allure, these sculptures infuse the environment with a natural and organic feel, connecting individuals to the innate beauty of nature. As wooden sculptures are integrated into interior settings, the arrangement and display drastically alter the spatial dynamics. This transformation influences the overall atmosphere by blending technical and artistic elements, enhancing the space’s character. The interplay between the placement and exhibition of these sculptures shapes the ambiance, creating a harmonious fusion of technical precision and creative expression. Ultimately, the incorporation of wooden sculptures into indoor environments aims to cultivate a more inviting and pleasant atmosphere. This amalgamation of space, artistry, and technology creates a captivating and comfortable setting that appeals to all who experience it. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Sensitivity Analysis of Sensible Loads to Variation in General Hospital Envelope Performance

    병원 건물 외피 성능 변화에 따른 냉난방부하에 관한 민감도 분석

    Jeong, Woo-Seong, Kim, Hyo-Jun, Cho, Young-Hum, Choi, Dong-Ho

    정우성, 김효준, 조영흠, 최동호

    In this study, sensitivity analysis based on multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the effects of changes in the thermal transmittance … + READ MORE
    In this study, sensitivity analysis based on multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the effects of changes in the thermal transmittance of the exterior wall, the extrior roof, the lowest floor, and window of the hospital selected as the target building on the sensible load. The results show that the heating load of the target building is sensitive in this order : the thermal transmittance of the window, the exterior wall, the extrior roof, and the lowest floor. And the cooling load of the target building is sensitive in this order: the thermal transmittance of the window and the lowest floor. To suggest the envelope performance improvement, cost effectiveness of the amount of sensible load savings and material cost of each cases based on the ECM (Energy Conservation Measure) list was analyzed. In the end, the method that can reduce the most sensible load savings with the lowest material cost was produced. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Performance Evaluation of Fault Detection for Building HVAC Systems with Feature Selection Methods

    입력변수 조건에 따른 공조기 고장검출 성능평가

    Jeong, Jin-Hwa, Chae, Young-Tae

    정진화, 채영태

    This study proposes performance improvement methods of fault detection of AHU systems with measurement of variable importance and comparison for three fault … + READ MORE
    This study proposes performance improvement methods of fault detection of AHU systems with measurement of variable importance and comparison for three fault models based on ASHRAE 1312-RP experimental dataset. The results show that input variables were determined differently for each of the representative three fault types. The fault detection performance be improved more than 29% compared to base input condition using major input variables which measured importance of system variables. Also, the impact of variables and models be differed for each type of fault. The results of this study contribute to failure protection of HVAC systems and exploration of fault location in advance. It is necessary to verify the generalization performance of the proposed model in actual system conditions. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Development of Residential Building Energy Benchmark Data

    주거용 건물에너지 벤치마크데이터 개발

    Kim, Hye-Jin, Shin, Jae-Kwang, Seo, Dong-Hyun

    김혜진, 신재광, 서동현

    This study provides residential energy benchmark data in response to the government’s initiative for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and activating green buildings. … + READ MORE
    This study provides residential energy benchmark data in response to the government’s initiative for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and activating green buildings. Utilizing the Household Energy Panel Survey (HEPS) data from the Korea Energy Economics Institute, climate normalization of annual energy consumption was performed for various residential types and regions. This process led to the proposal of energy consumption characteristics, excluding seasonal variations, based on the Energy Use Intensity (EUI). The energy benchmark data proposed in this research can serve as a fundamental resource for energy management and policy formulation, offering benchmarks for sustainable building operations. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
  • Research Article

    Review of Research Trends in Improving the Efficiency of Solar Thermal Systems based on Energy Storage Technology and Proposal of Domestic Activation Strategies

    에너지 저장기술 기반 태양열 시스템 효율 개선 연구 동향 고찰 및 국내 활성화 방안 제안

    Choi, Sang-Ho, Park, Myung-Gun, Lee, Ho-Seok, Oh, Kwang-Cheol, Choi, Eun-Taek, Jeong, Su-Gwang

    최상호, 박명군, 이호석, 오광철, 최은택, 정수광

    The rapid technological advancement post-industrialization and the global population surge necessitate urgent improvements in energy efficiency and the widespread adoption of renewable … + READ MORE
    The rapid technological advancement post-industrialization and the global population surge necessitate urgent improvements in energy efficiency and the widespread adoption of renewable energy sources. This study examines research trends aimed at activating the domestic solar thermal system market. It scrutinizes the composition and characteristics of various solar thermal systems, focusing on non-concentrating and concentrating collectors. A key research trend explored is the application of phase change material (PCM) in energy storage systems. Additionally, ongoing research aims to enhance collector efficiency through nanoparticle integration. These technologies find active applications in diverse solar thermal systems like hot water systems, solar air heaters, solar stills, solar cookers, and solar ponds. The study observes research on seasonal thermal storage for solar thermal systems. However, practical market expansion requires addressing fundamental issues in current systems beyond energy storage materials and fin applications. From this standpoint, the study proposes a solar heat pump station technology, utilizing heat circulation and hot water circulation modules to overcome traditional system limitations. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2023
Journal Informaiton Journal of Korean Institute of Architectural Sustainable Environment and Building Systems Journal of Korean Institute of Architectural Sustainable Environment and Building Systems
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